Friday, May 13, 2011

Test Review #1, a-u

a. an electron in the highest occupied energy level of an atom
valence electrons
b. shapes adjust so valence-electron pairs are as far as possible 
VSPER Theory
c. indicator changes colors
end point
d. attraction between polar molecules
dipole interaction
e. solution containing more solute than can theoretically dissolve at a given temperature
saturated solution
f.  a reaction in which a single compound is broken into simpler substances
g. the mass of a mole of any element or compound
molar mass
h. covalent bond in which only one pair of electrons is shared
single bond
i. covalent bonds occur between two of these
j. particle emitted when a nucleus transforms a proton into a neutron
k. rule explaining why atoms react so as to acquire the stable electron structure of a noble gas
octet rule
l. the percent by mass of each element in a compound
percent composition
m. this is conserved in every ordinary chemical reaction
n. acid with two ionizable protons
diprotic acid
o. the reactant that is not completely used up in a reaction
excess reactant
p. the reactant that determines the amount of product that can be formed in a reaction
limiting reagent
q. increases when a solute is added to a solvent to form a solution
boiling point
r. bonding formed by the attraction of valence electrons for metal ions
ionic bonding
s. the volume occupied by a mole of any gas at STP
22.4 L
t. occurs when an unstable nucleus divides into two nuclei of roughly equal mass
nuclear fission
u. a reaction in which oxygen in limited supply reacts with another substance often producing heat or light
chemical reaction